Gorleston Psalter

Date: ca. 1310
Location or Findspot (Modern-Day Country): United Kingdom
Dimensions: 32.5 × 23.5 cm
Description: This East Anglian Psalter has lively and humorous marginal scenes, including hybrid knights in combat with snails, human heads attached to various parts of animals' bodies, and several individuals defecating or exposing their anuses. This Psalter also features an early example of "sound effects," with a duck in a fox's mouth calling out "queck." Scholars continue to debate the reasons why medieval scribes and artists sometimes combined sacred texts with silly, irreverent, and often vulgar imagery.
Relevant Textbook Chapter(s): 9

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British Library, Add MS 49622, fol. 61r with man's exposed rear British Library, Add MS 49622, fol. 105r with human head on bird's rear British Library, Add MS 49622, fol. 190v with quacking duck