Date: Second decade of the tenth century (Old Tokalı Kilise) and 960 (New Tokalı Kilise)
Location or Findspot (Modern-Day Country): Turkey
Description: The Tokalı Kilise (Buckle Church) complex was not constructed but rather hewn from soft volcanic rock in Cappadocia, where such rock-cut structures were relatively common. The church known as Old Tokalı Kilise was created in the second decade of the tenth century. The church was extended around 960, with the old church and its newly replaced east end forming an overall T shape. The decorative programs in both parts include extensive Christological scenes. The extension, known as New Tokalı Kilise, is filled with richly colored wall paintings with a notable use of vibrant lapis lazuli. A fragmentary inscription in the new church names an unknown Constantine and his son Leon as patrons and someone named Nikephoros as an artist.
Relevant Textbook Chapter(s): 5
Repository and Online Resources: • For more views, visit Dick Osseman's photography gallery.
Image Credits: Dick Osseman, Wikimedia Commons, Navid Jamali
Tags: Byzantine, Western Asian, Christian, Access to the sacred, Status and identity, Artistic production, Works in textbook